Antibody Definition, Production Processes, and Properties – The human body has a defense system to protect itself from foreign objects that may be pathogenic. This body’s defense system called the immune system. The immune system consists of all the cells, tissues, and organs that form immunity, i.e. immunity to infection or a disease. The immune system has several functions in the body, namely the antidote to foreign “objects” that enter the body, maintain the balance of bodily functions, as a detection of the presence of abnormal, mutated, or malignant cells and immediately destroy them.
In our surrounding environment, there are many small molecular substances that can enter the body. Such a small substance can be an antigen when it is attached to our body’s proteins. A small substance that can turn into an antigen is known as hapten. The substances escape from the non-specific response barrier (external and internal), then the substance enters and binds to B lymphocyte cells that will synthesize the formation of antibodies.
Antibodies are a glycoprotein compound that has a certain structure and is secreted by B cells that have been activated in plasma cells, in the form of a response from certain antigens and reactive to the antigen itself.
The human immune system (immunity) is regulated by the body’s ability to produce antibodies in the fight against antigens. Antibodies can be found in other areas of the blood or glands of vertebrates. In addition, it is also used by the immune system in identifying and neutralizing foreign objects such as bacteria and viruses.
Antibody molecules circulate in the blood vessels and enter the tissues of the body by performing an inflammatory process. Antibodies are composed of a basic structure called a chain, each of which has two large chains and two light chains. Antibodies are often also referred to as immunoglobulin.
At the beginning when foreign substances enter, monocytes will automatically attack the substance directly with the help of a neutrophils. After that, the monocytes that has killed the substance immediately sends it to lymphocyte B to be recorded and made antibodies for the type of foreign substance that is dead.
Then the antibodies that have been formed, for the next T lymphocytes that will ensure the antibodies have been present on the surface of the body cells.
When a foreign object enters, it takes between 10 to 14 days for the antibody to form perfectly. These antibodies can be found in blood and noncellular fluids. Each antigen formed already has a perfect conformity with foreign substances (antigens), in a way, an antigen is key and antibodies are padlocks.
Immunoglobulin G (IgG)
IgG is the most common antibody and is usually produced in just a few days. Immunoglobulin G can live in the blood for up to a few days even for several years. IgG antibodies circulate in the blood of the lymph nodes, as well as the intestines. When the antigen enters, they use blood flow to go to the location where the antigen enters.
IgG has a strong effect in the body’s defenses in bacteria and viruses, as well as neutralizing the acids contained in antigen toxins. In addition, IgG antibodies have specific abilities that can penetrate and slip between cells and get rid of bacteria that enter cells and skin. Lastly, this type of antibody can also penetrate into the placenta of pregnant women to protect the fetus from possible infection. This capability is possessed by IgG due to its small molecular size.
Immunoglobulin A (IgA)
Immunoglobulin A has a great tendency to choose the location of placement in moist areas of the body, namely tears, breast milk, saliva, blood, air bags, mucus, gastric sap, and intestinal secretions. This is because it is the same nature as bacteria that like the moist area to be used as a base.
In addition, this type of antibody can protect the fetus in the mother’s womb to be free from the possibility of entering antigens that can cause disruption of the fetus’ body. However, IgA antibodies in the mother’s body will disappear when the baby is born. But because of the content of IgA in breast milk, the baby still gets protection.
Immunoglobulin M (IgM)
Similar to other types of antibodies, IgM antibodies are present in the blood, lymph nodes, and the surface of B cells. Immunoglobulin M is the first type of antibody to attack antigens if antigens enter.
The fetus in the womb still gets protection from IgM at about 6 months gestation. IgM production will increase if it is fighting against antigens. Therefore, if you want to see if the fetus has been infected or not, you can see the level of IgM in the blood.
Immunoglobulin D (IgD)
These antibodies are also present in the blood, lymph nodes, as well as the surface of B cells. IgD antibodies are not able to act individually, but they stick to the surface of T cells, so it can help T cells catch antigens.
Immunoglobulin E (IgE)
Immunoglobulin E circulates in the blood and is tasked with summoning other troops to attack foreign substances that enter the body. Such antibodies often cause allergic reactions in carrying out their duties. Therefore, in people who are affected by allergic reactions, in the blood increases the production of IgE.
Antibody Production Process
- Antibodies are formed naturally in the human body where the substance is passed from the mother to her fetus. The antibodies produced in newborns are still very low, and later the antibody develops as a person develops.
- The formation of antibodies due to exposure to antigens that produce an immune reaction, the process of which is:
For example salmonella bacteria. When an antigen (salmonella bacteria) enters the body, then the body will respond because it is considered a foreign object, because this bacteria is intercellular so it cannot afford to be destroyed in macrophages because this bacteria also produces toxins as a defense of the body. Therefore macrophages also produce APC that serves to present antigens against lymphocytes. There are two lymphocytes namely B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes.
Last Updated on April 6, 2021 Reviewed by Market Health Beauty Team